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Body adipose tissue

Consuming of cholesterol is not associated with atherosclerosis, while it is the function of body liver, and if they become disorganized in their action, and cannot act properly, they will lead to lipid metabolism problems, and cardiovascular diseases.
1- It is specific type of connective tissue
2- It is %15-20 of the body weight in women
3- It is %20-25 of the body weight in men
4- Lipid cells are the key of adjusting the body energy metabolism
5- The reason of obesity–Hypertrophy (increase the adiposities volume) no (hyperplasia increasing the cells) lipid cells or adiposities.
● Most of the present obesities are just morbid inflammation.
6- Adipose tissue is the greatest source of body energy (it is in the form of triglycerides or neutral lipids).
7- Another body store is as liver glycogen and muscle glycogen.
● Triglyceride, because the eating process is periodic, and the glycogen storage is limited, therefore, it should be a greater source of calories and energy, to move in foods eating periods, and it contains less dense and more valuable calories than glycogen (9 k calories for per gram of triglyceride, against 4/1 k calories per gram glycogen and carbohydrates or sugars). Therefore, adipose tissues are useful energy store tissue, and they are sensitive to neural and hormonal stimulations, and it can provide essential body energy.
There are distinguishing between Cellulite and Cellulitis:
Cellulite (Cellulitis)  skin infection
Cellulite (Cellulite)  There are deformed accumulation of body lipids, in ladies, due to their dysfunction metabolism.
● Connective tissue fibers have been developed slower, by being obesity and lipid cellular inflammation, and they will get wrinkled and the skin on the lipid tissue will be orangey manner.
● As a matter of fact, there is the nutritional problem that cause to deposing tissue defective resilience and skin and inflammation cells cause to cellulite (Cellulite).
● Triglycerides are the lipid storage forms in cells and contain glycerol and lipid acids.
Storage triglycerides source in cells:
1- Food lipids that have been brought to adipose tissue and it are in form of Chylomicrons triglycerides.
2- Triglycerides that are made in liver in the form of VLDL, then it will transfer to adipose tissue cells.
There are particles that are formed in intestine epithelium cells, and their diameter is up to 3 microns, and they will transfer to blood plasma and mesenteric lymph.
Chylomicrons structure
The core is consist of triglycerides and a little cholesterol esters + Consolidation layer, consist of apolipoprotein + Cholesterol + Phospholipids
It is smaller than Chylomicrons.
It has more lipids in layer of the surface (as a result, the ratio of surface, is more than volume).
It has different apolipoprotein in its layer.
It has more cholesterol esters into triglycerides in comparison with Chylomicrons.
● Chylomicrons and VLDL will be hydrolyzed in capillaries inside surface with lipase lipoprotein enzyme.
● LPL enzyme has been made in lipid cells (that its process is consumed energy) and it transfers to cellular membrane of capillaries.
● When Chylomicrons and VLDL become hydrolysis inside the surface of capillaries , and they will converted to free lipid acids, free lipid acids will be inserted to adiposities or lipid acids, by active transfer and free issuance.
● Lipid acids + glycerol + triglyceride
● Mitochondria and smooth endoplasmic net (SER) they will participate in lipid cells, in yield process and lipid storage, actively.
● Lipid cells can synthesize the lipid acids from glucose, and insulin can accelerate this process (increasing the lipid storage in insulin consuming).
● Insulin, that absorbed in glucose, stimulate the lipid cells, and increase the producing the LPL enzymes.
● Storage lipids will be inserted into blood in lipid cells, as triglycerides, due to hormonal and released neural mechanisms, as lipid acids.
● Hormonal stimulating will be done by norepinephrine, in terminal of sympathetic neurons.
● Released lipid acids in blood, will be reached to plasma albumin and will be reached to the cells and body tissues and have been used for fuel.
● Glycerol is more soluble in blood and liver will take it.
● Insulin controls the lipase that is sensitive to hormones and reduces the releasing of lipid acids, and stimulates the lipid structure enzymes.
● Growth hormone can cause to breaking down the triglycerides and releasing the lipid acids.
● Glucagon hormone can also cause to breaking down the triglycerides and releasing the lipid acids.
● Adipose tissue makes a hormone, called Leptin, that effect on hypothalamus and can regulate the appetite.
● Increasing the visceral lipids has been correlated with diabetes and vascular-heart diseases, but subcutaneous lipid is not in this manner.
● Palm and sole and behind of eye socket lipid tissues will melted, in longer time.
● We shouldn’t consume of vegetable industry oil, it is the most important thing about lipids, including of solid vegetable oils, liquid frying oils, and we should consume of animal oils, and consume of natural sesame oil, to be healthy.
This vital molecule is in lipid groups, this molecule structured from several ring molecules.
The role and function of cholesterol in body:
It can make strong and flexible the body cells membranes.
● Cholesterol is a type of lipid that has been formed from important cellular membrane.
There is also cholesterol in blood, and it has contained of two sources:
1- with the source of eaten foods.
2- Cholesterol that has been produced in liver.
● Herbal foods do not have cholesterol.
● Cholesterol will be absorbed through intestine, after eating food, and it will be packed, along with triglycerides, inside a protein cover, and a protein pack of lipid will be created, that called Chylomicrons.
● Liver can ever take the cholesterol from blood, or can make cholesterol and pour it, inside the blood.
● Liver will take the Chylomicrons, from the blood and insert the produced cholesterol into the blood, after consuming foods, gradually.
● The produced cholesterol will be evaluable by liver, but not cholesterol of foods.
● Consuming cholesterol is not associated with arteriosclerosis, necessarily, but it is liver cells function, and if it has been involved, and cannot act properly, it can cause to appearing lipids metabolism problems and heart diseases, and if body immune system cells act properly, they do not let atheroma plaques deposition in cordial vessel walls, on the other hand, if all of body cells act properly, cause to being correct the body metabolism and cholesterol, and there is no reason, to be concern about cholesterol rational consumption.

Dr. Hassan Akbari
Pathology Specialist
Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Associate Professor and
Researcher of Islamic - Iranian Traditional Medicine

Attachment : Body_adipose_tissue.pdf ( 33KB )

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